Έκθεση της Europol συνδέει τα ψηφιακά νομίσματα με το ψηφιακό έγκλημα
H τελευταία έκθεση της Europol με τίτλο “EXPLORING TOMORROW’S ORGANISED CRIME” συνδέει τα ψηφιακά νομίσματα με το διαδικτυακό έγκλημα και γενικά με την μετεξέλιξη των παραδοσιακών μεθόδων των εγκληματικών οργανώσεων σε ένα μελλοντικό ψηφιακό κόσμο.
Serious and organised crime will pose new threats to the Member States of the EU. Organised crime groups will find ways to exploit evolving technologies, changes in the economy and society. New forms of payment such as virtual currencies will change how criminal actors transfer and launder illicit proceeds of crime. New modes of transportation will provide OCGs with greater mobility and new ways to traffic illicit goods into, from and via the EU.
Συγκεκριμένα η έκθεση αναφέρει τα ψηφιακά νομίσματα ως ένα μελλοντικό μέσο συναλλαγών και μεταφοράς αξίας χρημάτων από εγκληματικές δραστηριότητες καθώς και ως ένα ανώνυμο μέσο μίσθωσης hackers στο διαδίκτυο.
Virtual currencies will allow organised criminals to anonymously exchange and use financial resources on an unprecedented scale without the need for complex and cost-intensive money laundering schemes. Some actors will provide highly specialised services catering to a relatively small group of clients. These services may include the infiltration of control systems or the physical infiltration of companies using sophisticated identity fraud scams with information gathered from online intrusion and reconnaissance.
Ενώ στην συνέχεια αναφέρει ότι τα χαρακτηριστικά αυτών των ψηφιακών νομισμάτων όπως η ανωνυμία τους είναι ιδανικά χρήση στο οργανωμένο ψηφιακό έγκλημα
Virtual currencies offer a particular set of features that make them attractive to criminals: anonymity or pseudonymity, and the rapid and irreversible transfers of funds. Although generally designed for legitimate use, virtual currencies are heavily abused by criminals. Criminals often favour centralised schemes (particularly for criminal-to-criminal payments) which are inherently more stable compared to cryptocurrencies whose price is highly volatile. Virtual currencies are an ideal instrument for money laundering. Entry to and exit from the system is via an exchanger. Exchange services are another niche service offered in the digital underground economy. However, legitimate exchangers are also exploited, particularly those which do not apply Know Your Customer (KYC) principles and offer multiple methods to ‘cash out’ including payments via pre-paid or virtual credit cards and Money Service Bureaus. Once in control of the digital funds, the ease of creating new e-wallets means a launderer can easily discard ‘dirty’ wallets. In addition to traditional layering methods, cryptocurrencies use specialised laundering services known as ‘tum-blers’ or ‘mixers’ to obfuscate transactions to the point where it is very resource intensive to trace them. Unregulated or inadequately regulated online gambling has been exploited for money laundering purposes for years. The introduction of the possibility to pay, play and cash out using virtual currencies has however added a new level of anonymity.
ενώ πιστεύει ότι η χρήση τους γρήγορα θα υιοθετηθεί και σε εγκληματικές δραστηριότητες εκτός του διαδικτύου
Virtual currencies have already had a significant impact on various types of criminal activity facilitating the exchange of funds between criminal actors and giving rise to a flourishing black market economy on Darknet marketplaces. However, it is anticipated that virtual currencies will expand their user base and will be used increasingly for transactions outside the virtual realm. Virtual currencies have the potential to emerge as the preferred method of payment across various crime areas including traditional ones such as drug trafficking, the sale of counterfeit goods or illicit firearms.
Τέλος η έκθεση κλείνει με προτάσεις προσαρμογής της αντιμετώπισης του σύγχρονου εγκλήματος στα νέα δεδομένα.
Organised crime is becoming more complex and more diverse and law enforcement agencies will have no choice but to become more flexible and adaptable in their response. Big data and data analytics hold the potential to revolutionise law enforcement approaches to fighting serious and organised crime. However, these developments also represent huge challenges for law enforcement in trying to develop the capabilities to fully make use of their potential.
Ολόκληρη την έκθεση της Europol μπορείτε να την διαβάσετε εδώ